Addiction can either be a substance use disorder (SUD) or a behavioural addiction e.g. Pornography Addiction, Gambling.
A SUD is a problematic pattern of use of an intoxicating substance leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period; (Diagnostic Statistical Manual, DSM-5)
- The substance is taken in larger amounts over a longer period than was intended.
- There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to cut down or control use of the substance.
- A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance, use the substance, or recover from its effects.
- Craving, or strong desire or urge to use the substance.
- Recurrent use of the substance, resulting in a failure to fulfil major role obligations at work, school or home.
- Continued use of the substance despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or worsened by the effects of its use.
- Giving up/reducing important social, recreational, occupational activities because of substance use
Using the substance in physically hazardous situations.
- Continued use despite knowing the harmful effects of the substance physically and psychologically.
- Tolerance, described as needing greater amounts to achieve intoxication, and reduced effect when using the same amount.
- Withdrawal, as manifested by a craving for the substance or difficulty in controlling the onset, termination or levels of use.